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Law Clerks' Review

The Newsletter of the Institute of Law Clerks of Ontario
February 2019
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President's Message - Winter 2019


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Messages from ILCO

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ILCO's 29th Annual Conference
Commitment to Excellence

Location and Date

                               Quebec City, Quebec

                            Fairmont Le Chateau Frontenac

                             May 8, 2019 to May 11, 2019

It promises to be a fantastic event! This is a wonderful opportunity to learn, network and connect with old friends and colleagues. 

The Conference Attendee Budget can be found here.

Your 2019 Conference Committee



  • ILCO’s Annual Spring Social will be held on Wednesday, March 27, 2019 at 6:00 p.m.
    The exciting venue will be announced soon!

CLE Programs:



March 20, 2019

Real Estate (full day)

April 17, 2019

Securities (half-day)

May 29, 2019

Personal Injury (half-day)

June 12, 2019

Estates Accounting (lunch n’ learn)

June 19, 2019

Family (full day)




We have a great deal of programs planned this winter with the Continuing Legal Education Committee.

  • March 20, 2019 - Real Estate Law CLE
  • April 17, 2019 - Securities Law CLE 
  • May 29, 2019 - Personal Injury Law CLE
  • June 19, 2019 - Family Law CLE

In addition to planning the Corporate Law Program, we are also working on the 2019 calendar of events.  

We are always looking for members to join our committee so if you are interested and/or have any questions by all means please contact us at


ILCO's Continuing Legal Education Committee:
Zadiha Iqbal, Sharon D’Souza and Natasha Khan (Co-Chairs)
Peuly Rahman, Alexis Fitzjohn, Lisa Matchim, 
Christina Boodhan, and Anne Marie Jansen.


ILCO committees are always in need of members. Consider joining any one of the committees - Education, CLE, Certification, Newsletter and Public Relations. It is a great way to tap into your resources and network. Contact Laila M., Office Administrator, at 416-214-6252 or at for further information.


We are hard at work planning CLE programs and we want to hear from you! Do you have a topic you would like to see covered? Let us know! Submit your requests to:

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On September 26, 2018, The Institute of Law Clerks of Ontario (ILCO) attended The Law Office Management Association (TLOMA) Annual Conference and Trade Show held at White Oaks Conference Resort and Spa in beautiful Niagara-on-the-Lake.  ILCO attended as an exhibitor, promoting the benefits of ILCO membership to law office managers. It was a very busy booth with excellent swag!  We also connected with other organizations where we educated them about ILCO and its benefits.

Thanks to the visitors at the ILCO booth, see you again next time!



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The Corporate Law Advanced Continuing Legal Education Program was a comprehensive, full-day session, which included a presentation by Cox & Palmer employment and labour lawyers Jessica Bungay and Jessica Gillis, titled “Getting Down in the Weeds – Cannabis in the Workplace.”

Following the session, program attendees and members were hosted by Cox & Palmer at Drake 150 for its 5th annual sociable. Cox & Palmer lawyers and corporate services representatives were in attendance to meet and mingle with ILCO members. More than 80 came out to enjoy the evening of networking, friendship, and fun.

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B.C. to Crack Down on Hidden Ownership of Real Estate with New Reporting Obligations

On June 20, 2018, the B.C. Ministry of Finance released a white paper on draft legislation that will require reporting on beneficial ownership of land in B.C. The draft legislation, titled the Land Owner Transparency Act (LOTA), follows the government’s announcement in the 2018 budget that it intends to collect and make available information about beneficial ownership of land in a public registry. The government’s stated intention behind the registry is to end hidden ownership of real estate to prevent tax evasion, fraud and money laundering.

The scope of the reporting obligations under LOTA is extensive and will have implications for anyone who currently holds, or in the future may acquire, an interest in land in B.C., including shareholders of a corporation that holds or acquires an interest in land. Broadly speaking, the intent behind LOTA is to identify all individuals who ultimately own real estate in B.C.

The government is accepting comments on the draft legislation until August 19, 2018. More information about the consultation, including a copy of the white paper and draft legislation, is available on the Ministry of Finance’s website.


LOTA may impact anyone who holds, or in the future acquires, an interest in land in B.C., which includes freehold and leasehold interests. LOTA introduces the concept of a “reporting body”, meaning:

  • A relevant corporation, which generally captures all corporations except exempt entities such as government entities, statutory authorities, public companies and institutional entities.
  • A trustee of a relevant trust, which generally captures any trustee of a trust, including trustees commonly known as nominees or bare trustees; certain types of trusts are excluded from the meaning of relevant trust, including charitable trusts, pension plan trusts, bankruptcy trustees, mutual fund trusts and real estate investment trusts (REITs).
  • A partner of a relevant partnership, which generally captures partners in all types of partnerships, including general partnerships, limited partnerships and limited liability partnerships.

Also important to the application of LOTA is the concept of an “interest holder”, which is limited to individuals who hold beneficial interests in land directly, or through corporations or partnerships. The following classes of individuals are interest holders under LOTA:

  • A beneficial owner, which captures an individual who: (a) has a beneficial interest in an interest in land; (b) has the power to revoke a trust in respect of an interest in land; or (c) is a “corporate interest holder” (i.e., a significant shareholder) of a corporation that has a beneficial interest in an interest in land or that has the power to revoke a trust in respect of an interest in land.
  • A corporate interest holder, which captures an individual who: (a) has ownership or control, directly or indirectly, of 25 per cent or more of the equity or voting rights in a corporation; (b) directly or indirectly, can appoint or remove a majority of the directors of a corporation; or (c) has “significant influence” or control over a corporation.
  • A partnership interest holder, which captures an individual who: (a) has an interest, as a partner in a partnership, in an interest in land that is partnership property registered in the name of a partner; or (b) is a corporate interest holder (i.e., a significant shareholder) of a corporation that has an interest, as a partner in a partnership, in an interest in land that is partnership property registered in the name of a partner.



Under LOTA, three main circumstances give rise to a requirement to file certain information with the government: (a) the acquisition of an interest in land; (b) pre-existing ownership of an interest in land; and (c) a change in beneficial ownership.

Firstly, on an application to register an interest in land in the land title office:

  1. The transferee must file a “transparency declaration” indicating whether or not the interest in land will be registered in the name of a reporting body.
  2. If the interest in land will be registered in the name of a reporting body, the reporting body must file a “disclosure report”.

In practice, a transparency declaration will be required for all applications to register an interest in land subject to LOTA, including transactions where a disclosure report is not required because the interest will not be registered in the name of a corporation, trustee, or partner to which LOTA applies. Failure to submit a transparency declaration and, if required, a disclosure report, will result in the land title office refusing to register the interest in land.

Secondly, a reporting body that is currently a registered owner of an interest in land in B.C. must file a disclosure report on or before a date to be prescribed by regulation. This requirement will apply to any reporting body that owns an interest in land in B.C. immediately before the relevant section of LOTA comes into force.

Thirdly, LOTA will require a reporting body to file a new disclosure report within two months after the date it becomes aware of a change in interest holders (i.e., individuals).


A disclosure report filed by a reporting body must include specified identification information about the reporting body, which is unique depending on the entity. For corporations, this includes their name, address, business number and jurisdiction. For individuals, this includes their name, citizenship and principal residence.

A reporting body must also make reasonable efforts to disclose specified information for each interest holder (i.e., individuals) in the reporting body, including their name, citizenship, principal residence, date of birth and social insurance number. If the reporting body is a trustee, it must also disclose information about the settlor of the trust. Additional information that must be disclosed on a reasonable efforts basis includes the following, which depends on the type of reporting body: (a) if a corporation, the rights and interests that each corporate interest holder (i.e., significant shareholder) has in the corporation; (b) if a trustee, the interests and powers that each beneficial owner has in respect of the interest in land; and (c) if a partner, the interests the partnership interest holder (i.e., an individual partner or significant shareholder of a corporate partner) has in respect of the interest in land.


LOTA will create a registry to be administered by the Land Title and Survey Authority pursuant to which information filed in transparency declarations and disclosure reports on reporting bodies and interest holders (i.e., individuals) will be accessible by the general public, law enforcement, taxing authorities and regulatory authorities. The government intends that this information will be searchable in a manner similar to what currently exists for land title information, including searches by parcel identifier (PID) to ascertain the individuals holding beneficial interests in such parcel or searches by name to identify beneficial interests in land held by such individual.

Publicly accessible information will be restricted to certain identification information for reporting bodies and interest holders (i.e., individuals) such as name, address, business number and jurisdiction (for corporations) or name, citizenship and principal residence (for individuals). However, such publicly accessible information will not be available for interest holders until at least 30 days after a disclosure report is filed. During this 30-day period, individuals can apply to omit certain identification information from the public record. Information about individuals under 19 years of age and those determined to be incapable of managing their financial affairs will be omitted from the publicly accessible information.


Failure to submit a transparency declaration and, if required, a disclosure report, will result in the land title office refusing to register the interest in land.

Contraventions of LOTA may be subject to administrative penalties of up to C$50,000 (for corporations) or C$25,000 (for individuals) or may be found to be an offence subject to a fine of up to C$100,000 (for corporations) or C$50,000 (for individuals).

Inspection powers are granted to the Land Title and Survey Authority in order to determine compliance with LOTA, including powers to enter a place of business or records office, to require a person to produce records or answer questions relevant to an inspection, and, subject to a claim of solicitor-client privilege, to inspect records in the possession of a lawyer.

For further information, please contact:

Mike Ventresca, Blakes LLP  604-631-3392

or any other member of our Commercial Real Estate group.

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Major Changes to Canada’s Trademark Laws to Come into Force in June 2019

The Canadian government introduced in 2014 the first procedural step toward ratifying and implementing five intellectual property law treaties in order to align Canadian practice with that of most other countries in the world. The government has also introduced amendments to its existing intellectual property legislation, which have not yet come into force.

Amendments to the Trade-marks Act and related regulations will come into force on June 17, 2019. This action will coincide with Canada’s accession to theSingapore Treaty on the Law of Trademarks (Singapore Treaty); the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (Madrid Protocol); and theNice Agreement Concerning the International Classification of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks (Nice Agreement).

As discussed in a previous communication, notable changes include the following:

  • An expanded definition of what may qualify as “trademarks,” including a word, design, colour, 3D shape, hologram, moving image, sound, scent, taste, texture and other such signs.
  • The removal of the necessity to identify the date of first use of a mark in Canada in a new application or to file a declaration of use to secure registration. This amendment will likely increase the number of applications that are filed in Canada without needing show use of the mark in Canada for a certain period of time. In the absence of other factual evidence, it will also be more difficult for applicants to evaluate competing rights of third parties.
  • The use of the Nice Classification for the description and classification of goods and services included in all new trademark applications and existing registrations. This amendment will affect the filing of, and renewal fees for, all trademarks because it will impose separate fees for each class of goods and services covered in an application or registration. Filing or renewing trademark applications before the amendments come into force is therefore recommended.
  • The possibility of using the Madrid Agreement to file applications in certain foreign countries, through a single application originating from Canada.
  • The examination of new applications for distinctiveness (not only for descriptiveness or likelihood of confusion with other marks).
  • The possibility of dividing pending applications to speed up registration of part of an application.
  • The reduction of the term of protection, from 15 to 10 years, from registration. Renewing trademark registrations before the amendments come into force is recommended.
  • Other amendments regarding the corrections of errors, the streamlining of formalities for assignments, and other similar provisions.
ILCO wishes to thank ILCO Member Benoit Archambault for submitting this article. 

Bill 47 is Now Law

On Wednesday, November 21, 2018, the Ontario Legislative Assembly passed Bill 47, the Making Ontario Open For Business Act, 2018. We previously outlined some of the main features of Bill 47 in Bill 148 Update: New Regulations and Bill 47 Public Consultations Announced. The original Bill 47 passed with very few amendments. Of the changes made before passing, the most notable was that the MPPs on the committee overseeing Bill 47 removed a proposed new power for the Ontario Labour Relations Board to amend bargaining units where those bargaining units were no longer appropriate for collective bargaining.

The Lieutenant Governor of Ontario gave Royal Assent to Bill 47 upon its passing. As a result, the Bill 47 changes to the Labour Relations Act, 1995 came into effect on November 21, 2018, and the Bill 47 changes to the Employment Standards Act, 2000 will come into effect on January 1, 2019. Those subject to current applications before the Ontario Labour Relations Board for employee lists, first contract mediation-arbitration, card check certification in the security, temporary help agency, home care/community services or building services sectors, or remedial certification, may wish to seek legal advice as soon as possible given Bill 47's coming into force.

In addition to passing Bill 47, the provincial government filed new regulations on October 24, 2018 which will result in the penalties for contravening the posting and records keeping requirements of the Employment Standards Act, 2000 being decreased on January 1, 2019 from:

  • a fine of $350 for a first offence to $250;
  • a fine of $700 for a second offence in a three year period to $500; and
  • a fine of $1,500 for a third, or subsequent offence in a three year period, to $1,000.

The Government of Ontario is also soliciting further input on proposed new employment regulations here.

Bill 57 and the 2018 Fall Economic Statement

And that's not all the government has been up to. On Thursday, November 15, 2018, the Government of Ontario delivered its Fall Economic Statement, or "FES", an annual tradition. On the same day, Bill 57, the Restoring Trust, Transparency and Accountability Act, 2018, was introduced in the Legislative Assembly for the purposes of implementing several of the initiatives announced in the FES.

Outlined in this year's FES were several initiatives or pledges by the new government which will be of interest to Ontario employers, including:

1. changing the implementation date for the Pay Transparency Act from January 1, 2019, to an indefinite future date to be chosen by the government. Some features of the Pay Transparency Act were set to take effect on January 1, 2019, including requirements that:

  • all public job postings (including online postings) required a stated salary range; and
  • employers were barred from inquiring about job candidates' past income levels. 

The change to the Pay Transparency Act implementation date is part of the omnibus Bill 57, and will be expected to become law prior to the December holiday break of the Legislative Assembly.

For those familiar with the machinations at Queens Park, making such a change to the Pay Transparency Act likely indicates that the new government is not interested in having the Pay Transparency Act come into force at all;

2. changing the Fire Protection and Prevention Act, 1997, by way of Bill 57, by:

  • making several changes to the interest arbitration process; and                                                                         
  • permitting professional firefighters to also act as volunteer firefighters in other communities, without reprisal (by employers or unions). 

Given the current Fire Protection and Prevention Act, 1997 closely resembles interest arbitration legislation for other sectors (police, health care, etc.), this change could serve as a model for significant future changes in those sectors as well;

3. exempting all employees of the Crown, of Crown agencies, or of an authority, board, commission or corporation whose members are appointed by the Crown, from the hours of work and overtime provisions of the Employment Standards Act, 2000. In fact, prior to announcing this initiative in the FES, the Government of Ontario had already put this feature into law by filing unannounced regulations exempting Crown employees from these provisions, effective October 24, 2018;

4. exempting Ontario Hockey League ("OHL") players from the requirements of the Employment Standards Act, 2000. The new provincial government has already acted on this commitment, putting in place a standalone regulation which exempts "a player on a major junior ice hockey team" from the Employment Standards Act2000 if the player is eligible to receive a scholarship from the player's team or league for post-secondary education "for each hockey season the player plays". There are no other parameters set for the conditions for the scholarship, nor is there a required value for any scholarship;

5. increasing the Employer Health Tax exemption level from the first $450,000 in payroll up to the first $490,000 in payroll;

6. launching a review of the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board. The details of this review are not yet clear;

7. reviewing all tribunals under the purview of the Ministry of the Attorney General, including the Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario. Details of this review are not yet clear;

8. assisting the University sector to establish jointly sponsored pension plans;

9. affirming that children under the age of 25 with private drug plan coverage will be exempted from the government's OHIP+ prescription coverage. Given the Government of Ontario's OHIP+ plan will cover those under 25 without coverage, employers may wish to review any ongoing prescription coverage for employees' dependent children to see if this is still necessary; and

10. extending alcohol and cannabis sales to private retailers, which will require additional staff training for retailers.

The new provincial government has been active in reshaping provincial employment and labour laws and responsibilities, and we will continue to monitor their progress and new initiatives that may be of interest.


This article was reprinted with the permission of Fasken. Fasken is one of the world's leading international business law and litigation firms
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Recreational Cannabis Legalization Part 1: Homeowners Insurance

By Aaron Murray, Partner, and David Edwards, Lawyer, Beard Winter LLP

Aaron Murray is a partner at Beard Winter LLP, practising primarily in the areas of insurance defence and personal injury litigation. He deals with many different types of insurance law disputes including personal injury, product liability, professional liability, property/environmental damage, residential and commercial construction damage, CGL, winter maintenance, life and health disability, defamation, fire loss, theft and coverage issues.

David Edwards practices civil litigation, primarily in the area of insurance defence. He maintains a diverse practise defending various insurance law disputes, including personal injury, product liability, recreational liability claims, property/environmental damage, CGL, fire loss, winter maintenance, defamation, and coverage issues. He also has experience representing clients in administrative law disputes in the context of environmental and regulatory matters.

While recreational users of marijuana have counted down the days to October 17, 2018, the insurance industry has been preparing for the resulting changes, risks and opportunities that will occur as a result of the legalization of marijuana in Canada. With the passing of Bill C-45-The Cannabis Act, there is a new legal landscape that will impact premiums, coverages and claims. The legalization of recreational marijuana will have far-reaching impacts across many different lines of insurance, and will likely take years to fully measure and understand. Insurers must consider the consequences that legalization will have on their current standard policies including amendments to the wording to reflect the new law, and potential variations in the requirements across the country. Although this article deals with legalization related to homeowners insurance, there will be impacts on commercial general liability and automobile insurance as well. 


According to Statistics Canada, in 2017, almost 5 million Canadians between the ages of 15 to 64 purchased both medical and recreational cannabis, spending approximately $5.7 billion in the process. Nearly all of the cannabis consumed in Canada was produced in Canada. These figures are expected to increase now that cannabis has been legalized.[1]

The Cannabis Act allows adults (18 or 19 years of age, depending on the jurisdiction) to legally purchase, possess, share, cultivate and alter limited amounts of cannabis for recreational means.

The Act permits the cultivation of four plants per “dwelling house”. This limit applies regardless of the number of adults living in one house. The Act does not restrict the growing of cannabis plants indoors, and appears to contemplate that people will be able to grow the plants in their gardens, yards, or greenhouses.

According to the legislative provisions, provinces will have the ability to impose additional requirements on personal cultivation and possession limits. As a result, there could be varied restrictions and/or requirements from province to province. All insurers who underwrite business in multiple provinces will need to be aware of potential variations in recreational cannabis requirements across the country.

The Act also permits individuals to make cannabis-containing products (such as edibles), provided that dangerous organic solvents are not used in making them.

Impact on Homeowners Insurance

Although large-scale, personal growing operations (“grow-ops”) will remain illegal and void most homeowner insurance policies that are faced with related claims, the Act permits the cultivation of cannabis plants at home, as discussed above. Personal cultivation of cannabis will introduce another peril that is currently excluded under homeowners insurance, which is indirect or direct loss or damage to a dwelling used in the processing or manufacturing of marijuana. This exclusion will need to be amended to reflect the new law.

The typical homeowners policy includes some form of relatively standard criminal and intentional act exclusion. Under the new legislation, marijuana cultivation within the allowed restrictions would not fall within the typical criminal act exclusion. This will be a big change from both an underwriting and claims perspective.

Marijuana Cultivation and Disclosure

Home cultivation of marijuana has many inherent dangers, with a multitude of potential claims that could result. Growing marijuana plants indoors can require additional heat, water, and electricity. Electrical modifications and overloaded circuits can increase the risk of fire, while improper ventilation and irrigation can increase the risk of water damage and mould. Marijuana also grows faster when the amount of carbon dioxide increases, which is why many grow-ops have been found to use natural gas, propane, and other fuels to power carbon dioxide generators, which would dramatically increase the risk of fire.

Insurers will need to consider a requirement for insureds, or potential insureds, to disclose whether or not they are cultivating their own marijuana. Insurers currently do not typically ask applicants for insurance whether they are actively growing marijuana within their home. Whether or not someone is cultivating marijuana at home is likely to impact the premium that is charged. As a result, a failure to disclose cultivation could represent a material change in risk, as was argued by the insurer in Bahniwal v. The Mutual Fire Insurance Company.[2]

The insurer in the Bahniwal case was unsuccessful in proving that the insureds had knowledge of the grow-op on their property. The Court confirmed that if the insureds had been aware of the presence of the grow-op on their premises, their failure to disclose its existence would have constituted a failure to disclose a material fact.  As a result, insurers should consider their policy wording carefully, and determine whether or not such a disclosure should be included in their standard application process. 

An additional risk related to marijuana cultivation is presented when it comes to rental properties. Insureds as landlords may have no idea if their rental property is being used to cultivate marijuana plants. Insurers should consider whether or not questions posed on an insurance application for a rental property will require landlords to demonstrate that they have taken measures to inform themselves of the legal marijuana cultivation activities of their tenants. This could require landlords to show the insurer that they have included disclosure of marijuana cultivation as a question, or series of questions, on their lease/tenancy agreement to be completed by all prospective tenants. 

All of these additional risks could be heightened when looked at in the context of multi-unit housing complexes, such as large apartment and condominium complexes. The additional risk to adjoining or neighboring properties could be significant, with the potential for a rise in claims framed as nuisance/escape to land. There is the obvious risk of flooding, fire, and mould that could impact adjoining properties. In addition, there is the potential for nuisance claims as a result of escaping odors.

Insurers are expected to recognize the increased risk of claims, where homeowners cultivate marijuana within their residential premises, by reflecting this with increased premiums. Insurers must adjust their policy application process and develop a methodology for evaluating these increased risks. This might take some time as claims arise and new policies are issued/renewed after legalization.

Insurers must also consider that although possession and home cultivation is now legal in Canada, there are limits to both. As noted earlier, almost all standard homeowner insurance policies currently include criminal activity exclusions. As a result, if a homeowner is cultivating marijuana and selling it themselves illegally (including edibles), or exceeding the limits imposed by the Act, insurers might be able to exclude, fight, or void coverage on the basis of the criminal activity exclusion. That said, losses and/or claims arising from marijuana activity that fall within the legalization limits will not be excluded.

Theft and Damage of Marijuana Plants

If an insured homeowner is legally growing marijuana, it is not unreasonable to believe that the home is likely subject to an increased risk of theft as a result.

An increase in claims related to theft or damage to marijuana plants also presents an additional risk for insurers as private homeowners could become a lucrative target for thieves. Will policies allow homeowners to recover the cost of damaged marijuana plants? How will the value of the plants be determined? And, will marijuana plants be considered to be personal property for theft or damage claims, or will they fall under the “tree, shrub, and plant” portion of the policy (which typically has maximum recoverable amounts)? To ensure the smooth and efficient processing of claims, insurers are best advised to clarify the policy wording and set up a framework for adjusters faced with such claims.

Although there is limited judicial commentary on the treatment of recreational marijuana in the context of homeowners insurance policies, the Ontario Divisional Court addressed the issue of medical marijuana in Stewart v TD General Insurance Co.[3] The plaintiff had Health Canada’s permission to possess and cultivate his own marijuana for medicinal purposes. Eleven of his marijuana plants were subsequently stolen, and the plaintiff took the position that the plants were personal property.

The insurer in Stewart took the position that the plants were not personal property, but conceded that they were covered under the “extended coverage” clause for “landscaping”, and that it had already paid to the plaintiff the limited coverage of $1,000 per plant. The plaintiff claimed that the value of the plants was just under $50,000. The Divisional Court held that a loss due to the theft of the marijuana plants from the plaintiff’s home was excluded under the policy. The Court also noted that the standard grow-op exclusion did not apply because the plaintiff had Health Canada’s authorization to possess and cultivate the marijuana.

In reaching their conclusion, the Court in Stewart held that marijuana plants in a backyard could be considered personal property. The Court also noted that covered personal property under the subject policy must be “usual to the ownership of the maintenance of a dwelling”. As a result, the policy wording operated to exclude the marijuana plants from coverage as they could not be considered usual to the ownership and maintenance of a dwelling.

In coming to its conclusion, the Divisional Court in Stewart stated that fewer than one-third of one percent of the population of Canada was authorized to grow marijuana for their own medicinal purposes at the material times relevant to the action (the losses occurred in 2009 and 2011). It used this information to reach its conclusion that marijuana plants in a backyard are not “usual to” the ownership or maintenance of a dwelling itself. Given the expected growth in home cultivation of marijuana once the Act comes into effect, one can expect that such a judicial interpretation could be quite different in the context of legalized marijuana.

Social Host Liability Claims

Insurers should also be prepared for a possible increase in social-host liability type claims as they relate to marijuana. As Canadians are now able to share up to 30 grams of dried marijuana with other adults, insurers should be prepared for personal injury claims resulting from situations where a homeowner supplies guests with marijuana, whether cultivated at home or not.

What if a homeowner supplies tainted or “defective” marijuana to a guest who then drives high and causes an accident? What if a child visiting a home consumes and reacts to the homeowner’s home-grown marijuana? Not only is there the potential for social-host liability claims, there is also likely to be the potential for product liability type claims where a homeowner’s guest ingests marijuana cultivated by the homeowner.


The legalization of marijuana will result in additional risks and opportunities for the insurance industry. Insurers and their counsel must adapt to the changes that will be brought about by the Act, including undertaking an analysis of current insurance policy exclusions and prohibitions. There will also likely need to be changes to the policy application process, to reflect the increased risk posed by at-home marijuana cultivation.

Key Takeaways

  • From a claims perspective, the expected growth in the number of homeowners cultivating their own marijuana will require insurers to develop an appropriate framework to ensure that claims are being adjusted effectively.
  • Given that premiums are impacted by claims experience, compiling data on marijuana related claims will be critical from an underwriting perspective, so that premiums can appropriately reflect the risk posed by the legalization of marijuana.
  • Under the new legislation, marijuana cultivation within the allowed restrictions would not fall within the typical criminal act exclusion. Policies will need to be amended accordingly.
  • Personal cultivation of marijuana represents an increased risk of direct or indirect damage to property. Consideration should be given to amending standard policy applications to require disclosure of marijuana cultivation at the time of application and at renewal.
  • It may take some time for insurers to develop a standard method for the evaluation of the additional risk presented by home cultivation of marijuana that can be applied somewhat consistently. Insurers should develop a framework to adjust marijuana claims and implement a system to track and evaluate such claims so that they turn the challenges faced by the legalization of marijuana into a profitable opportunity.



This article was published by Leighton Interactive ( on September 9, 2016,  ILCO wishes to thank Callie Schroeder, the Leighton Interactive Account Manager for permitting ILCO to reprint.



Many of you are probably wondering “Who was Giselle?” and “Why should I remember her?”

Well Giselle Piper was an integral part of making The Institute of Law Clerks of Ontario (ILCO) what it is today.  Giselle was the President of ILCO from 1996 to 1998 and again from 1999 to 2008.  In addition she was a member of the Annual Conference Committee for many years between 1999 and 2004, including several years as the Chair of the Conference. Giselle was instrumental in growing the number of Conference Exhibitors and used the revenue to expand ILCO’s programmes.

When Giselle became President in 1996 the membership stood at 679 and when she retired in 2008 the membership had increased to 1,572.

Giselle passed away on December 28th, 2018 and I believe the members of ILCO have a lot to remember her for and to be thankful for all that she did for ILCO during her tenure as President and Chair of the Annual Conference Committee.  So when you go to the Annual Conference in Quebec City in May, please raise a glass to Giselle’s memory.

ILCO is pleased to welcome the following upgrades (UG) and new members as of February 14 2019.


Gill Navneet

Tyson Victoria

Benns Sydney

Herr Harpreet

Rakhipova Tatyana

Sasso Susan

Taylor Kaitlynn

Travisano Raffaele

DiPasqua Jessica

Regis Emmarline

Clipperton Nicole

Luong Mai Tram

Bambury Lakesha

Ennis-Spence Carene

Burch-Jaskiewicz Chantal

Huynh Amy

Cook Bradley

Wong Abbey

Powell Samantha

Lee Young Hwa (Daisy)

Sogbein Adeola

Lim Daniel

Johnson Loyta

Van Den Berg Michelle

Awad Inas

Cascagnette Brittney

Chappell Meaghan

Cimbron Melanie

Clarke Jolene

Cochrane Valorie

Deckker Therese

Douglas Aziza

Foote Michelle

Fraser Kelsey

Galvin Corinn

Ganeshamoorthy Dhusya

Harris Thomas

Hiller Braydon

Holden Sharan

Huang Minhua

Jones Hailey

Jordan Jessica

Kaur Gurpreet

King Travis

LaFance Brayden

Lafond-Carter Keshia

Lambert Michelle

Lapointe-Dumais Samantha

Laura Diana

Less Victoria

MacMillan Julia

McCoy Sheryl

McEwen Hunter

McLean Courtney

Morita Katarina

Mosie Miranda

Mullings Ashley-Ann

Mundle Sara

Nixon Lauren

Ooka Chiharu

Pope Ashley

Richards Cassandra

Rochefort Natalie

Rocheleau Nicole

Scalia Merissa

Sipione Joseph

Smith Sara

Stonehouse Jaime

Szeto Melanie

Urquhart Samantha

Waltenberry Deanna

Ajayi Christopher

Allen Matthew

Atkins Eden

Policht Magdalena

Smolarz Dorota



 Ocean Wallace   
Wallace Law Professional Corporation

Thomas Tu
Ontario Motor Vehicle Industry Council

Katherine Eddy 
Borden Ladner Gerais LLP

Stacey Hogan 
Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP

Alyssa Khadan
Giesbrecht, Griffin, Funk & Irvin LLP

Safiya Simpson-Givons
Potestio Law

Andrea Sturgess
Ares Law Professional Corporation 

Erin Tucker
Adair Goldblatt Bieber LLP

Emily Valles
Otto Mok Barrister & Solicitor

Molly Warwick
Adair Goldblatt Bieber LLP

Kimberly Kavluk
Cassels Brock & Blackwell LLP

Stacey Newman
Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP

Christine McLeod-Richards
Mann Lawyers LLP

James Zhang
Minken Employment Lawyers

Bryn Lockhart
TaxChambers LLP

Sarbjit Kaur
Lakhwinder Singh Sandhu Law Office

Laura Belanger
Centennial Law Group

Mariela Adriana Gasparini
Borden Lander Gervais LLP

Deqa Mohamed
Law Society of Ontario

Tanisha Stuckless-Wallen
Law Society of Ontario

Christine Conlin
Low Murchison Radnoff LLP

Debra Mills
Minken Employment Lawyers

Davette Case
Borden Ladner Gervais LLP

Belinda Raposo
Bennett Jones LLP

Jerako Wendt
Schultz Frost LLP

Pamela Heary

Rachel Dean
Deol & Nagpal Law Firm LLP

Salman Sarfraz
Treasury Board Secretariat

Ophelia Wing Shan So
Bartolini Berlingieri Barrafato Fortino LLP

Alexandra Walkden
Crawley MacKewin Brush LLP

Jaspreet Duggal
Hope Law Office

Stephanie Wurthman
Bennington Financial Services Corp.

Sarah Ovenden
Miller Thomson LLP

Natasha Therrien
Maisonneuve Dawkins Professional Corporation

Gillian Virc 
Maisonneuve Dawkins Professional Corporation

Lara Friedman
Gowling WLG LLP

Francine Garland
Gowling WLG LLP

Juliana Racanelli
Goodmans LLP

Olga Kosenko
Fogler Rubinoff LLP

Catherine Tylee
Torkin Manes LLP

Laura Legault
Gowling WLG LLP

Isabelle Cote
Juristes Power Law



Patricia Chambers
Leonard Siegel Professional Corporation

Suzanne Kingshott
Learners LLP

Isabel Persi
Burchett Law

Anuradra Babulal
Bell Temple LLP

Wanda Chorney
Ontario Aboriginal Housing Support Services Corporation

Luciana Arevalo

Paulina Dominiak 
Davis Webb LLP

Nicole Jarrett-Fisch 
Holbrook Family Law

Laura Proniuk
The Stronach Group

Sharon Allan
Honda Canada Inc.

Natasha Kozel
City of Vaughan

Jennifer Simpson
Hughes Amys LLP

Eveleen Lal
Aird & Berlis LLP

Olive Mercy
Ontario Public Service

Nancy Amaya
Rochon Genova LLP

Sandra Arsenault
Fogler Rubinoff LLP

Edna Rioveros Tienzo
Fogler, Rubinoff LLP



Lindsey Van Poorten
Piasetzki Nenniger Kvas LLP



Kelly Williams
J.D. Irving, Limited

Sara Hawkins
Memorial University of Newfoundland

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Certified Expert

ILCO is pleased to welcome the following new ILCO Certified Experts in their area of law as of February 21 2019.




Sandy De Brum (Real Estate)
Chicago Title Insurance Company 

Vian Zulemian (Family Law)
Nelson Family Law 



  • March 20, 2019 - Real Estate (CLE Program)
  • March 27, 2019 -  ILCO's Annual Spring Social
  • April 17, 2019 - Securities (CLE Program)
  • May 8, 2019 - May 11, 2019 - ILCO's Annual Conference
  • May 29, 2019 - Personal Injury (CLE Program)
  • June 12, 2019 - Estates Accounting (CLE Program)
  • June 19, 2019 - Family (CLE Program)

    See for further details. Dates may be subject to change.

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ILCO Board of Directors 2019

  • Lisa Matchim
  • Rose Kottis
    Vice-President, Registrar and
    Co-Chair Conference
  • Margaret Tsetsakos
    Treasurer and
    Co-Chair Conference
  • Suzanne VanSligtenhorst
    Secretary and
    Co-Chair Public Relations 
  • Ian Curry
    Co-Chair Public Relations and
    Co-Chair Conference
  • Zadiha Iqbal
    Chair Education
  • Natasha Khan
    Co-Chair CLE
  • Kathryn Rizzi
    Chair Certification and
    Co-Chair Education 

  • Christina Boodhan
    Chair Certification
    Co-Chair Newsletter

  • Sharon D'Sousa
    Co-Chair CLE
  • Kristopher Rodrigues
    Newsletter Committee


Job Hotline

Information on current employment opportunities is available at the ILCO website

For information on placing a job advertisement please contact ILCO at 416-214-6252 or by email to


Advertise in the Law Clerks' Review

The Law Clerks’ Review welcomes advertising for law-related businesses.  Please ask about bulk advertising rates.

For information on advertising in the Law Clerks’ Review contact Laila M., Office Administrator, at 416-214-6252 or email to


Change of Address

Are you moving? Don’t miss a single issue of the Law Clerks' Review. Forward your new mailing address to:

The Institute of Law Clerks of Ontario
20 Adelaide Street East, Suite 502
Toronto, Ontario M5C 2T6

or by email to:
or by fax to: 416-214-6255


The views expressed in articles, correspondence, etc. are those of the writer(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of ILCO.

The Board reserves the right to edit all submissions.

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Remember to join us on our social media pages for further information regarding ILCO events and seminars: